NATO Advanced Research Workshop

Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

ENVIR.ARW 971731

Location: Sofia, Bulgaria

Dates:July 6-10 1998

Number of working days: 5

Director from NATO country

Z. Zlatev

National Environmental Research Institute
Department of Atmospheric Environment
Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358
DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

Phone: +45 4630 1149
Fax: +45 4630 1214
E-mail address:

Director from Collaborative Partner country

G. Marchuk

Institute of Numerical Mathematics
Russian Academy of Sciences
Gubkin Str., 8
117333 Moskow, Russia

Phone: +7 095 938 1769
Fax: +7 095 938 1821
E-mail address:

Organizing Committee:

P. Builtjes (TNO, The Netherlands)
I. Dimov (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria)
H. van Dop (Univ. Utrecht, The Netherlands)
G. Kallos (Univ. Athens, Greece)
A. Murli (CPS, Napoli, Italy)
P. Pardalos (Univ. Florida, Gainesville, USA)
R. San Jose (Univ. Madrid, Spain)
Bl. Sendov (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences + Vice-prezident of the Parliament, Bulgaria)
M. Vavalis (Univ. Crete, Greece + Univ. Purdue, USA)
J. Wasniewski (Danish Computing Center for Research and Education, Denmark)

Chairman of the Local Organizing Committee:

K. Georgiev (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Bulgaria)

Concise scientific goal of meeting:

Improving the abilities of the models to calculate (in real time if necessary) reliable predictions of the pollution levels in Europe by using (i) adequate descriptions of the physical and chemical processes, (ii) up-to-day numerical mathematics and (iii) advanced computer architectures.

Type of Workshop: the participants are selected by members of the Organizing Committe and invited to the meeting.

Key Words:

comprehensive models, predictions, numerical algorithms, parallel computing, visualization techniques, optimal reduction of emissions, operational runs (also in real time)

Why is Such a Workshop Needed?

The protection of our environment is one of the most important problems in the modern society. Reliable and robust control strategies for keeping the pollution caused by harmful chemical compounds under certain safe levels have to be developed and used in a routine way. Large mathematical models, in which all physical and chemical processes are adequately described, can successfully be used to solve this task. However, the use of large mathematical models in which all physical and chemical processes are adequately described leads, after the application of appropriate discretization and splitting procedures, to the treatment of huge computational tasks: in a typical simulation one has to perform several hundred runs, in each of these runs one has to carry out several thousand time-steps and at each time-step one has to solve numerically systems of ODE's containing up to several million equations. Therefore, it is difficult to treat numerically such large mathematical models even when modern computers are available. Researchers from the fields of environmental modelling, numerical analysis and scientific computing must unite their the efforts in the attempts to solve these problems. Distinguished specialists from these field will discuss the above problems at the proposed workshop.

Importance and Timeliness of the Topics of the Workshop

In some areas of Europe the pollution levels are so high that preventive actions are urgently needed, because some damaging effects may soon become irreversible. Therefore robust and reliable control strategies must be developed in order to find out where and by how much the emissions of harmful pollutants should be reduced. This task can be successfully solved only by carrying out long simulation experiments consisting of many hundreds runs of comprehensive mathematical models.


The new modern computers are becoming faster and faster. We shall have in the near future supercomputers that have top performance of several hundred Gflops and even of several Tflops. New and efficient numerical methods, by which the great potential power of the parallel computers can be better exploited, are gradually becoming available. The time is coming when specialists from the areas of supercomputing and numerical analysis unite their efforts with environmental modelling spacialists in order to develop fast and robust environmental models that can be used in the solution of many urgent and important environmental problems.

General Approach

Non-realistic simplifying assumptions are always made in all existing large-scale air pollution models in order to be able to treat them numerically on the computers available. Many such assumptions are not necessary anymore (because both the computers and the numerical methods are much faster now and will become even faster in the near future). Therefore, it is important now to describe all physical and chemical processes in an adequate way (according to the present knowledge) and to try to solve the problems by exploiting extensively the modern computational and numerical tools. This is a very difficult interdisciplinary task which must be solved with combined efforts from specialists from several different fields.

Major topics

The following major topics will be discussed at the meeting:

  1. Possibilities for running comprehensive environmental models on long time-periods.
  2. Possibilities for running big tracer models in real time (important for preparing predictions in case of huge environmental catastrophes, like the accident in Chernobyl).
  3. Parallel and vector computations with methods for solving big systems of partial differential equations, which can be used in air pollution modelling.
  4. Solving big optimization problems in connection with data assimilation and/or the distribution of new economical objects (especially for economical programs in developing countries). Coupling existing comprehensive models with economical models.
  5. Sensitivity analysis of large air pollution models. One day is reserved in the program for each of these topics. A time for common discussion will be provided for each topic (after the talks). Four key speakers will present talks in each of the topics.


Until now 56 participants from 19 countries have confirmed their participations and sent titles for talks theys should like to present at the NATO ARW on "Large scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling. The participants are comming from the following NATO countries and Collaborative Partner countries (click on "Participants" if you want to find the names of the participants and their addresses).

NATO countries No. of participants Collaborative Partner countries No. of participants
Denmark 6 Bulgaria 6
Germany 3 Georgia 1
Greece 3 Hungary 1
Italy 1 Lithuania 1
The Netherlands 3 Poland 2
Norway 1 Romania 2
Portugal 1 Russia 7
Turkey 3 Ukraine 2
Spain 4    
UK 3    
USA 3    
Total 31 Total 22


Speakers and titles of their talks

The list is sorted alphabetic according to the presenter of the talk (in bold). To see a list of the available abstracts, click here.

1. "Polution Modelling by Using Monte Carlo Methods Based on Ray Tracing Principles

Vassil Alexandrov

Computer Science Department
University of Liverpool
Liverpool, United Kingdom

2. "Modeling of Global and Regional Transport/Transformation of Air Pollutants"

Artash E. Aloyan

Institute for Numerical Mathematics
Russian Academy of Sciences
Gubkin str., 8
Moscow, 117333, Russia

3. "Studying High Ozone Episodes and Their Effects on Human Health and Vegetation"

Annemarie Bastrup-Birk, Jørgen Brandt and Zahari Zlatev

National Environmental Research Institute
Department for Atmospheric Environment
Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358
DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

4. "Mixed-layer Height in Coastal Areas - Experimental Results and Modelling"

Ekaterina Batchvarova

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology
66 Tzarigradsko chaussee
Sofia 1784, Bulgaria

5. "Parallel Computation of Air Pollution Models"

Claus Bendtsen

Danish Computing Centre for Research and Education
DTU, Bldg. 304
DK-2800 Lungby, Denmark

6. "Real Time Predictions of Transport and Dispersion from a Nuclear Accident"

Annemarie Bastrup-Birk,
Jørgen Brandt and Zahari Zlatev

National Environmental Research Institute
Department for Atmospheric Environment
Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358
DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

7. "Expereiences with Parallel Programming for Scientific Applications"

Marian Bubak

Institute of Computer Science, AGH
and Academic Computer Center CYFRONET
al. Mickiewicza 30
30-059 Krakow, Poland

8. "Data-assimilation and HPCN-examples of the LOTOS-model"

Peter Builtjes

Department of Environmental Quality
P.O.Box 342
7300 AH Apeldoorn, The Netherlands

9. "Computational Challenges of Modeling the Interactions between Aerosol and Gas Phase Processes in Large Scale Air Pollution Models"

Gregory R. Carmichael

Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research
and Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering
Iowa University, Iowa City, Iowa 52242-1000, USA

10. "Parallel Numerical Simulation of Air Pollution in Southern Italy"

Guido Barone,
Pasqua D'Ambra, Daniela di Serafino, Giulio Giunta,

Almerico Murli and Angelo Riccio
CPS (Centro di Ricerche per il Calcolo Parallelo
e i Supercalcolatori) - CNR
Via Cintia, Monte S. Angelo
80126 Napoli, Italy

11. "Large-scale Problems of Transportation of Ecologically Dangerous Materials"

V. F. Demyanov and S. K. Myshkov

Applied Mathematics Dept.
St.Petersburg State University,
198904 Staryi Peterhof,
St.Petersburg, RUSSIA

12. "Statistical Sensitivity Tests of Air Pollution Levels to Variations of Some Chemical Rate Constants"

Ivan Dimov and Zahari Zlatev

Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Acad. G. Bonchev Str. 25 A
Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

13. "Enabling Technologies for High Performance Computing"

Jack Dongarra

University of Tennessee and
Oak Ridge National Laboratory
104 Ayres Hall, Knoxville TN, 37996, USA

14. "Long Range Dispersion Modeling in the Aftermath of the Chernobyl Accident: Conclusions of ETEX"

Han van Dop

Institute for Marine and Atmospheric Research Utrecht
P.O. box 80.005 3508 TA Utrecht The Netherlands
Buijs Ballot Laboratorium
Princetonplein 5
Utrecht, De Uithof, The Netherlands

15. "Parallel 4D-variational Data Assimilation for a Eulerian Chemistry Transport Model"

Hendrik Elbern

Institute for Geophysics and Meteorology (EURAD)
University of Cologne
Albertus Magnus Plat
50923 Koeln, Germany

16. "Large Scale Air Pollution Control Problems"

Juri Ermoliev

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria

17. "Approaches for Correcting the Numerical Solution of the Advection Equation"

Michael Galperin

Department of Biophysics, Radiation Physics and Ecology,
Moscow Physical - Engineering Institute,
Studencheskaya street,31-9,
Moscow, 121165, Russia

18. "Application of Parallel Algorithms in an Air Pollution Model"

Krassimir Georgiev and Zahari Zlatev

Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing
Bilgarian Academy of Sciences
Sofia, Bulgaria

19. "Numerical Library Software for Large Scale Computations"

Sven Hammarling

Numerical Algorithms Group Ltd.
Wilkinson House, Jordan Hill Road
Oxford, OX2 8DR, United Kingdom

20. "Aerosol Modeling within the EURAD Model System: Developments and Applications"

Heinz Hass

Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen
Dennewartstr. 25
52068 Aachen, Germany

21. "The Influence of Lateral Boundary Values on the Calculation of Future Ozone ond Ozone Precursor Concentrations in a Regional Photochemistry Model

Jan Eiof Jonson

The Norwegian Meteorological Institute
P.O. Box 43 Blindern
N-0313 Oslo, Norway

22. "The Regional Weather Forecasting Models as Pridictive Tools for Major Environmental Disasters and Natural Hazards"

George Kallos, S. Nickovic, A. Papadopoulos and O. Kakaliagou

Dept of Applied Physics
Meteorology Lab.
Panepistimioupolis, Bldg. PHYS-V
Athens 15784, Greece

23. "Variable Scale Modelling of Air Pollution Transport (Telescopic Method)"

Vladimir K. Kouznetsov, V. B. Kisselev and V. B. Milyaev

Institute of Atmospheric Protection
7, Karbisheva str.
St Petersburg, Russia

24. "Adjoint Equations and Application to Problems of Global Change"

Guri I. Marchuk

Institute for Numerical Mathematics
Russian Academy of Sciences
Gubkin str., 8
Moscow, 117333, Russia

25. "Modelling of The Long-term Atmospheric Transport of Heavy Metals Over Poland"

Andrzej Mazur

Meteorology Centre,
Institute of Meteorology and Water Management
Podlesna 61
PL-01-673 Warszawa, Poland

26. "A Parallel Iterative Scheme for Solving the Convection Diffusion Equation on Distributed Memory Processors"

L. A. Boukas and Nikolaos M. Missirlis

Department of Informatics
University of Athens
Panepistimiopolis 15710
Athens, Greece

27. "Theory, Algorithms and Software Systems of Bayesian Heuristic Approach for Optimization of Large Scale Discrete or Continuous Models"

Jonas Mockus

Department of Optimization
Institute of Mathematics and Informatics
Akademijos 4, Vilnius 2600, Lithuania

28. "Parallel Algorithms for Large-Scale Location Problems in Environmental Modeling"

Panos M. Pardalos

Center for Applied Optimization
Industrial and Systems Engineering Department
303 Weil Hall, University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611-6595, USA

29. "On Air Pollution Monitoring (Case Study)"

Tamas Rapcsak

Laboratory of Operations Research and Decision Systems
Computer and Automation Research Institute,
Hungarian Academy of Sciences
H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 63, Hungary

30. "Neural, Fuzzy Modelling in Pollution, an Interesting Alternative to Other Procedures: An Overview and PC Illustrations of Some Experiments"

Mariana Bistran and Gheorghe M. Sandulescu

Artificial Intelligence Applications Laboratory
IPA SA Institute
and Information Technology Faculty
AISTEDA University, Bucharest
Bucharest, Romania

31. "Advanced Operational Air Quality Forecasting Models for Urban and Regional Environments in Europe: Madrid application"

R. San Jose, M. A. Rodriguez, M. A. Arranz,

I. Moreno and R. M. Gonzalez
Environmental Software and Modelling Group
Computer Science School - Technical University of Madrid
Campus de Montegancedo - Boadilla del Monte-28660
Madrid, Spain

32. "Adaptive Approximation with Fractal Functions"

Blagovest Sendov

Central Laboratory for Parallel Processing
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Acad. G. Bonchev Str. 25 A
Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

33. "A Preliminary Investigation of Soils, Oceans and Atmosphere Enrichment by Persistent Volatile Pollutants"

Mikhail Sofiev

Institute of Program Systems
Russian Academy of Science
Moscow, Russia

34. "The Future of Chemical Mechanism Development for Air Pollution Models: Chemistry, Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis"

William R. Stockwell

Fraunhofer Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research (IFU)
Kreuzeckbahnstr. 19
82467 Garmisch-Partenkirchen

35. "On Some Flux-type Advection Schemes for Dispersion Modelling Application"

Dimiter Syrakov

National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology
66 Tzarigradsko chaussee, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria

36. "The Use of 3-D Adaptive Unstructured Meshes in Air Pollution Modelling"

Alison Tomlin

Dept of Fuel and Energy
University of Leeds
Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom

37. "Atmospheric Environmental Management Expert System for an Oil-fired Power Plant"

Eloy A. Unzalu

Environmental Laboratory
LABEIN, Technological Research Centre
Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain.

38. "Collaborative Air Pollution Modeling"

Emanuel Vavalis

Institute for Applied and Computational Mathematics
Foundation for Research and Development Hellas

39. "Applied SMP Parallel Computing to Air Pollution Models"

Bjarne S. Andersen, Krassimir Georgiev, Jerzy Wasniewski and Zahari Zlatev

Danish Computing Centre for Research and Education
DTU, Bldg. 405
DK-2800 Lungby, Denmark

40. "Automatically from a Model Specification to Fortran Programs"

Lex Wolters

Computer and Software Systems Division
Dept. of Computer Science, Leiden University
P.O. Box 9512, 2300 RA Leiden, the Netherlands

41. "Including of Surface Source in SL Parameterization"

Dimiter Yordanov and Dimiter Syrakov

Geophysical Institute
Bulagarian Academy of Sciences
Acad. G.Bonchev str., bl. 3
Sofia 1113, Bulgaria

42. "Long-term Calculations Performed by the Danish Eulerian Model"

Annemarie Bastrup-Birk, Jørgen Brandt and Zahari Zlatev

National Environmental Research Institute
Department for Atmospheric Environment
Frederiksborgvej 399, P. O. Box 358
DK-4000 Roskilde, Denmark

Related home pages at the Department of Atmospheric Environment, NERI

Home page for EU-project ESPRIT, 24618 EUROAIR

Home page for EU-Project ESPRIT, 22727 WEPTEL

Home page for the REMAPE workshop in Copenhagen, September, 1996 REMAPE

This page is maintained by Annemarie Bastrup-Birk , Jørgen Brandt, Helge Rørdam Olesen and Zahari Zlatev

Document date: May 26, 1998


[Dep. Homepage] Department of Atmospheric Environment, NERI